As antimicrobial resistance continues to increase and new antimicrobial development stagnates, antimicrobial stewardship programs are being implemented worldwide. The goal of antimicrobial stewardship is to optimize antimicrobial therapy with maximal impact on subsequent development of resistance. Thirty to fifty percent of hospitalized patients receive antimicrobial therapy. Previous data suggest that inappropriate use results in higher mortality rates, longer lengths of stay, and increased medical costs. Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) reduce the improper use of antimicrobials and improve patient safety. Despite increased awareness about the benefits of these programs, few medical and surgical ASPs exist and fewer comprehensive studies evaluate their effects.
To study the antimicrobial stewardship program in a large tertiary care teaching center.
• To study the antibiotic prescribing practices in a tertiary care government hospital
• To compare the antibiotic prescribing practices with the standard guidelines available with the hospital
• To make recommendation if any for rational use of antibiotics.
Materials and methods
• Review of literature
• Prospective study of 15 days in selected general medicine and general surgery ward in which 5 to 6 reading will be taken in to know the antibiotic prescribed to patients.
• Retrospective study of 15 days for study of patient records to know the antibiotic prescribed to patients.
• Interaction with faculty and senior residents of general medicine and surgery to know about the pattern of infection and antibiotic prescription.
• Interaction with microbiology department and their faculty to know the microbial resistance pattern and possible suggestion which need to be incorporated in antibiotic Stewardship program.
The present study on antibiotic prescribing practices was undertaken in a super specialty hospital at New Delhi. A sample size of 100 case records was considered. There is no such stewardship program in tertiary care hospital, although it was demanded in various forum and meetings. There are no recommendations available either for patients of renal failure or other such compromised metabolic or immune states in the form of written antibiotic stewardship program of the hospital. The appropriateness of antibiotics prescribed in the case records was examined in light of the antibiotic stewardship program of the hospital. It was found that the overall adherence to antibiotic stewardship program was nil as no existing antibiotic stewardship program is exiting in this hospital. Gautum Dey in a study conducted at this hospital in New Delhi found that in 40.7% preoperative cases and 60.3% postoperative cases two or more than two antibiotics were given. The author has also commented that there was no evidence of adhering to antibiotic stewardship program or utilising culture and sensitivity reports to guide the therapy. The data obtained from the present study on further analysis has shown that in seven cases, the antibiotics prescribed were inadequate in terms of dose and duration. Thus resulting in an apparently lower cost of treatment than what was recommended by the antibiotic stewardship program of the hospital. Although such inappropriate prescription results in increased chances of antibiotic resistance, the immediate or short-term effects are not very conclusive. It is observed that there were 26 (26%) cases in medical and 12 (12%) cases in surgery disciplines in which the initial and final diagnosis was different. Uncertainty about the final diagnosis promotes empirical prescribing practices.
Antimicrobial stewards are a prominent part of local and national efforts to contain and reverse antimicrobial resistance. A range of intervention options is available with varying levels of resources and can yield substantial improvements in morbidity, mortality, quality of care, and cost. The cost of delivering such programs is dwarfed by the benefits and provides an opportunity for hospital epidemiologists to garner support. This suggests that antimicrobial management programs belong to the rarefied group of truly cost saving quality improvement initiatives. Considering the enormous implications of antibiotic resistance, it is necessary that we act in haste, lest our wonder drugs and magic bullets become ineffectual. Future systems promise greater integration and analysis of data, facilitated delivery of information to the clinician, and rapid and expert decision support that will optimize patient outcomes while minimizing antimicrobial resistance. They may also offer our best hope for avoiding an ‘Antibiotic armageddon’. In addition, the ASP plays an integral role in providing guidance to clinicians and ensures that the appropriate antimicrobial agents are used.
How to cite this article
Singh MM, Gupta SK, Gupta YK, Sharma DK, Kapil A. To Study the Antimicrobial Stewardship Program in a Large Tertiary Care Teaching Center. Int J Res Foundation Hosp Healthc Adm 2015;3(1):13-24.