International Journal of Research Foundation of Hospital and Healthcare Administration

Register      Login

VOLUME 5 , ISSUE 2 ( July-December, 2017 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Home Health Care: The Missing Link in Health Delivery System for Indian Elderly Population—A Narrative Review

Ankit Singh

Citation Information : Singh A. Home Health Care: The Missing Link in Health Delivery System for Indian Elderly Population—A Narrative Review. Int J Res Foundation Hosp Healthc Adm 2017; 5 (2):89-94.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10035-1082

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Published Online: 00-12-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2017; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Elderly population in India is at a disadvantageous position in comparison to other countries in matters of dedicated health facilities, health insurance, and geriatric specialist. Health issues of the elderly can be summarized as geriatric syndromes, cognitive decline, immobility, falls, and incontinence. These peculiar health characteristics of old age population can be better dealt with home health care, which is of recent origin in India and is limited to only metro cities in the private sector. Whereas home health care in the USA is present from over a century, in Europe it is present in most of the countries. This study presents the status of existing private home health care industry of India and advocates about the benefits of home health care for the elderly and supports that Indian policymaking bodies should incorporate home health care in its policy for improving access and quality of health care to elderly population.


PDF Share
  1. Irudaya Rajan I. Population ageing and health in India. Centre for enquiry into health and allied themes survey no. 2804 & 2805. Mumbai: Centre for Enquiry into Health and Allied Themes; 2006.
  2. Singh JP. Problems of India’s changing family and state intervention. Eastern Anthropol 2010 Jan-Mar;63(1):17-40.
  3. Bloom DE, Mahal A, Rosenberg L, Sevilla J. Economic security arrangements in the context of population ageing in India. Int Soc Sec Rev 2010 Jul;63(3-4):59-89.
  4. de Meijer C, Wouterse B, Polder J, Koopmanschap M. The effect of population aging on health expenditure growth: a critical review. Eur J Ageing 2013 May;10(4):353-361.
  5. Maples MF. Spirituality, wellness and the “Silver Tsunami”: implications for counseling. Alexandria (VA): American Counseling Association; 2007 [cited 2007 Aug 28]. Available from: http://counselingoutfitters.com/vistas/vistas07/Maples.htm.
  6. Maliakkal AV, Sun AZ. Home care program reduces hospital readmissions in patients with congestive heart failure and improves other associated indicators of health. Home Health Care Manage Pract 2014 Apr;26(4):191-197.
  7. Han SJ, Kim HK, Storfjell J, Kim MJ. Clinical outcomes and quality of life of home health care patients. Asian Nurs Res (Korean Soc Nurs Sci) 2013 Jun;7(2):53-60.
  8. Singh B. CMR’s India Home Healthcare Report 2016. Bengaluru: CMR; 2016 [cited 2016 Jul 22]. Available from: http://cmrindia.com/cmrs-india-home-healthcare-report-2016/.
  9. Population growth (annual %). (n.d.). Retrieved September 03, 2017, from https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.GROW?locations=IN.
  10. Government of India, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Central Statistics office. Elderly in India. New Delhi: Government of India; 2016.
  11. United Nations. World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. Geneva; United Nations; 2015.
  12. Booth L, Brockway K. Legal and ethical issues in gerontological counselling. Paper presented in CEP780 Class: legal and ethical issues in counselling, University of Nevada, Reno. 2006.
  13. Kastor A, Mohanty SK. Associated covariates of functional limitation among older adults in India: an exploration. Ageing Int 2016 Jun;41(2):178-192.
  14. Population census of India. 2011.
  15. Lindsay J, Laurin D, Verreault R, Hébert R, Helliwell B, Hill GB, McDowell I. Risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease: a prospective analysis from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Am J Epidemiol 2002 Sep;156(5):445-453.
  16. Heflin MT. Surviving the Silver Tsunami: training a health care workforce to care for North Carolina’s Aging Population. N C Med J 2016 Mar-Apr;77(2):102-106.
  17. Rao KD, Bhatnagar A, Berman P. So many, yet few: Human resources for health in India. Hum Resour Health 2012 Aug;10(1):19.
  18. Landi F, Onder G, Russo A, Tabaccanti S, Rollo R, Federici S, Bernabei R. A new model of integrated home care for the elderly. J Clin Epidemiol 2001 Sep;54(9):968-970.
  19. Suter P, Hennessey B, Harrison G, Fagan M, Norman B, Suter WN. Home-based chronic care. An expanded integrative model for Home Health Professionals Home health is poised to become the leader of chronic care disease management. Home Healthc Nurse 2008 Apr;26(4):222-229.
  20. Cui ZJ. Living arrangements and the health status of the elderly in rural China. Mumbai: International Institute for Population Sciences; 2002.
  21. Chen F, Short S. Household context and subjective well-being among the oldest old in China. J Fam Issues 2008 Oct;29(10):1379-1403.
  22. Ofstedal MB, Reidy E, Knodel J. Gender differences in economic support and well-being of older Asians. J Cross Cult Gerontol 2004 Sep;19(3):165-201.
  23. Zielinski A, Halling A. Association between age, gender and multimorbidity level and receiving home health care: a population-based Swedish study. BMC Res Notes 2015 Nov;8:714.
  24. Johnson CS, Stevens A, Rajan I. Promotion of healthy aging in the context of population aging phenomenon: a look at the aging state in India. Indian J Gerontol 2005;19(2-4):181-192.
  25. Loh LC, Ugarte-Gil C, Darko K. Private sector contributions and their effect on physician emigration in the developing world. Bull WHO 2013 Jan;91(3):227-233.
  26. Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development. Turning points – preparing American youth for the 21st century. New York (NY): Carnegie Corporation of New York; 1989.
  27. Carnegie Corporation on Adolescent Development. Great transitions – preparing adolescents for a new century. New York (NY): Carnegie Corporation of New York; 1995.
  28. Vandemoortele J, Delamonica E. Education vaccine against HIV/AIDS. Curr Issues Comp Educ 2000;3(1).
  29. De Walque D. How does the impact of an HIV/AIDS information campaign vary with educational attainment? Evidence from Rural Uganda. Washington (DC): The World Bank; 2004.
  30. Campbell OM, Graham WJ. Strategies for reducing maternal mortality: getting on with what works. Lancet 2006 Oct 7;368(9543):1284-1299.
  31. Souza JP, Gülmezoglu AM, Vogel J, Carroli G, Lumbiganon P, Qureshi Z, Costa MJ, Fawole B, Mugerwa Y, Nafiou I, et al. Moving beyond essential interventions for reduction of maternal mortality (the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health): a cross-sectional study. Lancet 2013 May;381(9879):1747-1755.
  32. Graham WJ. Now or never: the case for measuring maternal mortality. Lancet 2002 Feb;359(9307):701-704.
  33. Parkhurst JO, Penn-Kekana L, Blaauw D, Balabanova D, Danishevski K, Rahman SA, Onama V, Ssengooba F. Health systems factors influencing maternal health services: a four-country comparison. Health Policy 2005 Aug;73(2):127-138.
  34. Tayler L. Absorptive capacity of health systems in fragile states. London: HLSP Institute; 2005.
  35. Songane F. Stronger national plans for maternal, newborn and child health. Bull World Health Organ 2007 Aug;85(8):577-579.
  36. Potach DH, Chu DA. Plyometric training. In: Essentials of strength training and conditioning (2nd ed). Baechle TR Earle RW, editors. Human Kinetics 2000;427-470.
  37. Sale DG. Neural adaptation to resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1988;20:S135-S145.
  38. Plisk SS. Speed, agility and speed endurance development. Essentials of strength training and conditioning, (2nd ed). In: Baechle TR, Earle RW, editors. Human Kinetics, 2000;427-470.
  39. Mayhew JL, Piper FC, Schewgler TM, Ball TE. Contributions of speed, agility and body composition to anaerobic power measurements in college football players. J Appl Sport Sci Res 1989;3:101-106.
  40. Negrete R, Brophy J. The relationship between isokinetic open and closed chain lower extremity strength and functional performance. J Sport Rehabil 2000;9:46-61.
  41. Young WB, James R, Montgomery I. Is muscle power related to running speed with changes of direction? J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2002;42:282-288.
  42. Rutherford OM, Jones DA. The role of learning and coordination in strength training. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1986 55:100-105.
  43. Vonk-Noordegraaf A, Haddad F, Chin KM, Forfia PR, Kawut SM, Lumens J, Naeije R, Newman J, Oudiz RJ, Provencher S, et al. Right heart adaptation to pulmonary arterial hypertension: physiology and pathobiology. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013 Dec;62(25 Suppl):D22-D33.
  44. Weyman, AE. Principles and practices of echocardiography Philadelphia (PA): Lea & Febiger; 1994. pp. 914-915.
  45. Otto, CM. Textbook of clinical echocardiography. Philadelphia (PA): WB Saunders; 2000. pp. 120-122.
  46. Karas MG, Kizer JR. Echocardiographic assessment of the right ventricle and associated hemodynamics. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2012 Sep-Oct;55(2):144-160.
  47. Forfia PR, Fisher MR, Mathai SC, Housten-Harris T, Hemnes AR, Borlaug BA, Chamera E, Corretti MC, Champion HC, Abraham TP, et al. Tricuspid annular displacement predicts survival in pulmonary hypertension. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006 Nov;174(9):1034-1041.
  48. Koestenberger M, Nagel B, Ravekes W, Urlesberger B, Raith W, Avian A, Halb V, Cvirn G, Fritsch P, Gamillscheg A. Systolic right ventricular function in preterm and term neonates: reference values of the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) in 258 patients and calculation of Z-score values. Neonatology 2011 Jan;100(1):85-92.
  49. Lang RM, Badano LP, Mor-Avi V, Afilalo J, Armstrong A, Ernande L, Flachskampf FA, Foster E, Goldstein SA, Kuznetsova T, Lancellotti P, et al. Recommendations for cardiac chamber quantification by echocardiography in adults: an update from the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2015 Jan;28(1):1.e14-39.e14.
  50. Brierre G, Blot-Souletie N, Degano B, Têtu L, Bongard V, Carrié D. New echocardiographic prognostic factors for mortality in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2010 Jul;11(6):516-522.
  51. Mondillo S, Galderisi M, Mele D, Cameli M, Lomoriello VS, Zacà V, Ballo P, D'Andrea A, Muraru D, Losi M, et al. Speckle-tracking echocardiography: a new technique for assessing myocardial function. J Ultrasound Med 2011 Jan;30(1):71-83.
  52. Cioffi G, de Simone G, Mureddu G, Tarantini L, Stefenelli C. Right atrial size and function in patients with pulmonary hypertension associated with disorders of respiratory system or hypoxemia. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2007 Oct;8(5):322-331.
  53. Hammerstingl C, Schueler R, Bors L, Momcilovic D, Pabst S, Nickenig G, Skowasch D. Diagnostic value of echocardiography in the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension. PLoS One 2012 Jun;7(6):e38519.
  54. Schmidt NF, Missan SR, Tarbet WJ. The correlation between organoleptic mouth-odor ratings and levels of volatile sulfur compounds. Oral Surg 1978;45:560–67.
  55. Kostelc JG, Zelson PR, Preti G, et al. Quantitative differences in volatiles from healthy mouths and mouths with periodontitis. Clin Chem 1981;27:842–45.
  56. Yaegaki K, Suetaka T. Fractionation of the salivary cellular elements by Percoll density gradient centrifugation and the distribution of oral malodor precursors. Shigaku 1989;77:269–75.
  57. Javadi MA, Karimian F, Hosseinzadeh A, Noroozizadeh HM, Sa'eedifar MR, Rabie HM. Lamellar crescentic resection for pellucid marginal corneal degeneration. J Refract Surg 2004 Mar-Apr;20(2):162-165.
  58. Fronterre A, Portesani GP. Epikeratoplasty for pellucid marginal corneal degeneration. Cornea 1991 Sep;10(5):450-453.
  59. Ramez Barbara J, Barbara R, Zadok D, et al. Collagen Corneal Cross-Linking followed by Intac Implantation in a Case of Post-PRK Ectasia. Int J Keratoco Ectatic Corneal Dis 2012;1(1):68-72.
  60. Yeung SN, Ku JYF, Lichtinger A, Low SAW, Kim P, Rootman DS. Efficacy of single or paired intrastromal corneal ring segment implantation combined with collagen crosslinking in keratoconus. J Cataract Refract Surg 2013 Aug;39(8):1146-1151.
  61. Kiliç A, Kamburoglu G, Akinci A. Riboflavin injection into the corneal channel for combined collagen crosslinking and intrastromal corneal ring segment implantation. J Cataract Refract Surg 2012 May;38(5):878-883.
  62. Ferenczy PA, Dalcegio M, Koehler M, Pereira TS, Moreira H, Bugmann ML. Femtosecond-assisted intrastromal corneal ring implantation for keratoconus treatment: a comparison with crosslinking combination. Arq Bras Oftalmol 2015 Mar-Apr;78(2):76-81.
  63. Baikoff G, Joly P. Comparison of minus power anterior chamber intraocular lenses and myopic epikeratoplasty in phakic eyes. Refract Corneal Surg 1990 Jul-Aug;6(4):252-260.
  64. Baikoff G. Phakic anterior chamber intraocular lenses. Int Ophthalmol Clin 1991 Winter;31(1):75-86.
  65. Fechner PU, Worst JG. A new concave intraocular lens for the correction of myopia. Eur J Implant Refract Surg 1989 Mar;1(1):41-43.
  66. Brauweiler PH, Wehler T, Busin M. High incidence of cataract formation after implantation of a silicone posterior chamber lens in phakic, highly myopic eyes. Ophthalmology 1999 Sep;106(9):1651-1655.
  67. Zhang X, Tao X-C, Li Z-W, Zhou W-Y, Ma P, Zhang C-X, Wang Y-M, Mu G-Y. Combining corneal crosslinking and phakic toric implantable collamer lenses for the treatment of keratectasia: a case report. Exp Ther Med 2016 Sep;12(3):1495-1498.
  68. Cakir H, Utine CA. Combined kerarings and Artisan/Artiflex IOLs in keratectasia. J Refract Surg 2011 Feb;27(2):119-126.
  69. Moshirfar M, Fenzl CR, Meyer JJ, Neuffer MC, Espandar L, Mifflin MD. Simultaneous and sequential implantation of Intacs and verisyse phakic intraocular lens for refractive improvement in keratectasia. Cornea 2011 Feb;30(2):158-163.
  70. Thompson RW Jr, Price MO, Bowers PJ, Price FW Jr. Long-term graft survival after penetrating keratoplasty. Ophthalmology 2003 Jul;110(7):1396-1402.
  71. McAllum PJ, Segev F, Herzig S, Rootman DS. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty for post-LASIK ectasia. Cornea 2007 May;26(4):507-511.
  72. Villarrubia A, Perez-Santonja JJ, Palacin E, Rodriguez-Ausin PP, Hidalgo A. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty in post-laser in situ keratomileusis keratectasia. J Cataract Refract Surg 2007 May;33(5):773-778.
  73. Grewal S, Laibson PR, Cohen EJ, Rapuano CJ. Acute hydrops in the corneal ectasias: Associated factors and outcomes. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1999;97:187-98.
  74. Koenig SB, Smith RW. Keratoconus and corneal hydrops associated with compulsive eye rubbing. Refract Corneal Surg 1993;9:383-84.
  75. Mashor RS, Kumar NL, Ritenour RJ, Rootman DS. Keratoconus caused by eye rubbing in patients with Tourette syndrome. Can J Ophthalmol 2011;46:83-86.
  76. Kandarakis A, Karampelas M, Soumplis V, et al. A case of bilateral self-induced keratoconus in a patient with Tourette syndrome associated with compulsive eye rubbing: Case report. BMC Ophthalmol 2011;11:28.
  77. Coyle JT. Keratoconus and eye rubbing. Am J Ophthalmol 1984;97:527-28.
  78. Gritz DC, McDonnell PJ. Keratoconus and ocular massage. Am J Ophthalmol 1988;106:757-58.
  79. Rahi A, Davies P, Ruben M, et al. Keratoconus and coexisting atopic disease. Br J Ophthalmol 1977;61:761-64.
  80. Besancon G, Baikoff G, Deneux A, et al. Preliminary note on the psychological and mental status of patients with keratoconus. Bull Soc Ophtalmol Fr 1980;80:441-43.
  81. Copeman PW. Eczema and keratoconus. Br Med J 1965;2: 977-79.
  82. Mannis MJ, Morrison TL, Zadnik K, et al. Personality trends in keratoconus. An analysis. Arch Ophthalmol 1987;105:798-800.
  83. Swartz NG, Cohen EJ, Scott DG, et al. Personality and keratoconus. CLAO J 1990;16:62-64.
  84. Gasset AR, Hinson WA, Frias JL. Keratoconus and atopic diseases. Ann Ophthalmol 1978;10:991-94.
  85. Kaya V, Karakaya M, Utine CA, et al. Evaluation of the corneal topographic characteristics of keratoconus with orbscan II in patients with and without atopy. Cornea 2007;26:945-48.
  86. Galin MA, Berger R. Atopy and keratoconus. Am J Ophthalmol 1958;45:904-06.
  87. Roth HL, Keirland RR. The natural history of atopic dermatitis. A 20-year follow-up study. Arch Dermatol 1964;89:209-14.
  88. Lowell FC, Carroll JM. A study of the occurrence of atopic traits in patients with keratoconus. J Allergy 1970;46:32-39.
  89. Nemet AY, Vinker S, Bahar I, Kaiserman I. The association of keratoconus with immune disorders. Cornea 2010;29:1261-64.
  90. Buddi R, Lin B, Atilano SR, et al. Evidence of oxidative stress in human corneal diseases. J Histochem Cytochem 2002;50: 341-51.
  91. Kenney MC, Brown DJ. The cascade hypothesis of keratoconus. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2003;26(3):139-46.
  92. Behndig A, Karlsson K, Johansson BO, et al. Superoxide dismutase isoenzymes in the normal and diseased human cornea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2001;42:2293-96.
  93. Podskochy A, Fagerholm P. The expression of Fas ligand protein in ultraviolet-exposed rabbit corneas. Cornea 2002;21:91-94.
  94. Newkirk KM, Chandler HL, Parent AE, et al. Ultraviolet radiation-induced corneal degeneration in 129 mice. Toxicol Pathol 2007;35:819-26.
  95. Pettenati MJ, Sweatt AJ, Lantz P, et al. The human cornea has a high incidence of acquired chromosome abnormalities. Hum Genet 1997;101:26-29.
  96. Snibson GR. Collagen cross-linking: A new treatment paradigm in corneal disease—a review. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2010;38:141-53.
  97. Spoerl E, Raiskup-Wolf F, Kuhlisch E, Pillunat LE. Cigarette smoking is negatively associated with keratoconus. J Refract Surg 2008;24:S737-40.
  98. Rabinowitz YS, Nesburn AB, McDonnell PJ. Videokeratography of the fellow eye in unilateral keratoconus. Ophthalmology 1993;100:181-86.
  99. Goodrich DW, Lee WH. The molecular genetics of retinoblastoma. Cancer Surv 1990;9:529-54.
  100. Moodaley LC, Woodward EG, Liu CS, Buckley RJ. Life expectancy in keratoconus. Br J Ophthalmol 1992;76:590-91.
  101. Honein MA, Dawson AL, Petersen EE, Jones AM, Lee EH, Yazdy MM, Ahmad N, Macdonald J, Evert N, Bingham A, et al. Birth defects among fetuses and infants of US women with evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. JAMA 2017 Jan 3;317(1):59-68.
  102. Chervenak FA, Jeanty P, Cantraine F, Chitkara U, Venus I, Berkowitz RL, Hobbins JC. The diagnosis of fetal microcephaly. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1984 Jul 1;149(5):512-517.
  103. Papageorghiou AT, Thilaganathan B, Bilardo CM, Ngu A, Malinger G, Herrera M, Salomon LJ, Riley LE, Copel JA. ISUOG Interim Guidance on ultrasound for Zika virus infection in pregnancy: information for healthcare professionals. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Apr;47(4):530-532.
  104. Chibueze EC, Parsons AJ, Lopes KD, Yo T, Swa T, Nagata C, Horita N, Morisaki N, Balogun OO, Dagvadorj A, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound scanning for prenatal microcephaly in the context of Zika virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2017 May 23;7(1):2310.
  105. Cordeiro MT. Zika virus: laboratory diagnosis. In: Zika in focus. Springer International Publishing; 2017. pp. 59-62.
  106. Mlakar J, Korva M, Tul N, Popović M, Poljšak-Prijatelj M, Mraz J, Kolenc M, Resman Rus K, Vesnaver Vipotnik T, Fabjan Vodušek V, et al. Zika virus associated with microcephaly. N Engl J Med 2016 Mar 10;374(10):951-958.
  107. Zare Mehrjardi M, Keshavarz E, Poretti A, Hazin AN. Neuroimaging findings of Zika virus infection: a review article. Jpn J Radiol 2016 Dec;34(12):765-770.
  108. Oliveira Melo AS, Malinger G, Ximenes R, Szejnfeld PO, Alves Sampaio S, Bispo de Filippis AM. Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: tip of the iceberg? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016 Jan;47(1):6-7.
  109. Araujo AQ, Silva MT, Araujo AP. Zika virus-associated neurological disorders: a review. Brain 2016;139(8):2122-2130.
  110. Brasil P, Pereira JP Jr, Moreira ME, Ribeiro Nogueira RM, Damasceno L, Wakimoto M, Rabello RS, Valderramos SG, Halai UA, Salles TS, et al. Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro. N Engl J Med 2016 Dec 15;375(24):2321-2334.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.